Christmas Jewelry Gift - Perfect Christmas Gift Ideas for Jewelry Lovers

Choosing a Christmas jewelry gift can be quite daunting. Will they like the design? Is it the correct kind of metal? Do they like that kind of stone?

The list of concerns can seem endless...

However, with a little bit of thought it can actually be made a lot easier. Basing a jewelry purchase solely on price or current trends is not always the best idea. It may seem the easiest way, but it’s certainly not the best. When considering the purchase of a jewelry gift for a Christmas present take into account the person and their habits.

Yes, this does make things easier!

Firstly think about the person’s relationship to you. If they are a spouse, then usually there have been plenty of hints dropped in advance or you at least have a good idea of what they like. This can be based on past gifts or comments made about jewelry. If they are a friend or relative then you may need to take into consideration the person age and lifestyle.

Anne Klein Women's Watch For Christmas


If the person is in a young age bracket, then think practically. Expensive gold bracelets or pendants are a potential recipe for trouble due to a child's lifestyle. Any parent will tell you that children lose and break things almost as fast as they can be replaced. Even responsible children are not exempt from misplacing things or breaking a piece of jewelry whilst playing sports etc. If you do decide to buy jewelry for a younger person then sterling silver is a good selection due to its relatively low cost and durability. Any person from college age onwards is pretty much open to any selection, but again considers the person’s lifestyle. If the person is an avid hiker, then perhaps a watch would be a good choice. There are watches today with all kinds of features that are useful to outdoor types. If the person is an office worker then a set of cufflinks or a nice pair of conservative earrings is a great choice. People in this age bracket are probably the easiest to shop for, but do take into consideration on preference to metal type. Typically people in this age group prefer white gold these days, as they consider yellow gold to be outdated. Not a rule of thumb, but still a factor to consider.

People in the senior age group on the other hand actually prefer yellow gold and bright stones such as rubies. Seniors typically prefer jewelry with more design as opposed to the cleaner, simple modern jewelry. Take note that seniors prefer watches that are simpler with regard to complications. A senior will usually prefer a clean dial watch with the time and date, where as a twenty something may want chronograph features and GMT time zones for example.

Sterling Silver Tree of Life Disk Chain Pendant Necklace

As mentioned earlier, lifestyle is also a factor. A bracelet is not the best idea for someone who is rough on their hands as it will either get broken or not worn much due to it getting caught on things and becoming a nuisance. A pendant on the other hand would be a fair choice. If the person is a conservative dresser then cufflinks may be an option or a tie pin. If a person’s wallet is looking worse for wear then a money clip may be appreciated. If a lady goes to a lot of formal dinners or business meetings then a pair of earrings or pendant is a good choice. If the person typically dresses in bright colors then some of the brighter gemstones may be an option. If they typically dress in dark colors then diamonds, rubies, sapphires, or emeralds are a fitting choice for a Christmas jewelry gift.

To put it all into perspective, just a little thought can make purchasing Christmas jewelry gifts a whole lot easier. If you base your decision purely on the price you will find yourself buying something just because it was a good price and not because the person will actually find meaning in the item. With some thought you will find an item that the person will treasure because it compliments their style and personality.

Diseases Transmitted By Human Feces - Excreta Borne Disease

Excreta Borne Disease

1. Bacterial:

2. Viral:
  • Infective hepatitis
  • Poliomyelitis
  • Rotavirus diarrhea
  • Roundworm
  • Hookworm
  • Threadworm
  • Tapeworm.
(C) Effect on health and economy
The ultimate result of excreta-related health hazards are-
1.     Increased morbidity
2.     Increased mortality
3.     Low expectation of life
4.     Diminished physical capacity and fitness.
5.     Diminished labor force
6.     Low economic output
7.     The basic barrier of social and economic progress.

Diseases Transmitted By Human Feces - Excreta Borne Disease

Human excreta is a source of infection. It is an important cause of environmental pollution. Every society has a responsibility for its safe removal and disposal so that it does not constitute a threat to public health. The HEALTH HAZARDS or improper excreta disposal are:
1.     Soil pollution,
2.     Water pollution,
3.     Contamination of foods and Propagation of flies. The resulting diseases are typhoid and paratyphoid fever, dysenteries , diarrheas, cholera, hookworm disease, ascariasis, viral hepatitis and similar other a burden on the community in terms of sickness, mortality and a low expectation of life, but a basic deterrent to social and economic progress. Proper disposal of human excreta, therefore, is a fundamental environmental health service without which there cannot be any improvement in the state of community health.

How disease is carried from excreta:

Let us consider how the faecal-borne diseases are transmitted to a new host. The human excreta of a sick person or a career of disease is the main focus of infection. It contains the disease agent which is transmitted to a new host through various channels:
  • Water.
  • Fingers
  • Flies
  • Soil and 
  • Food. These events are shown in...

Diseases Transmitted By Human Feces - Excreta Borne Disease

Prevention of excreta borne diseases:

it is interesting to note that all faecal-borne diseases are controllable and preventable through good sanitation, especially through sanitary excreta disposal. In the transmission of these diseases there is a chain of events such as-

1.      A causative agent.
2.      A reservoir of the source of infection.
3.      A mode3 of transmission to the new host.
4.      A mode of entry and of course.
5.      A susceptible host.
6.     This disease cycle may be broken at various levels, e.g.
7.      Segregation of faces
8.      Protection of water supplies
9.      Protection of foods
10.  Personal hygiene and

11.  Control of flies of these, the most effective step would be to segregate the faces and arrange for its proper sanitary disposal, So that the disease agent can not reach the new host, directly or indirectly.

Causes Of Diarrhea And Diarrhea Treatment



Diarrhea is a major health problem in developing countries including Bangladesh. An estimated 73.5 million episodes and 0.26 million episodes and 0.26 million deaths occur each year in those under 5 years of age in Bangladesh. About 80% of deaths due to diarrhea occur in the first 2 years of life.

Epidemiological Triad:
1. Agent: There are many causative agents for acute diarrhea.

The most common ones are-

1. Bacterial: Enterotoxigenic E.coil
Enteropathogenic E.coil
V. cholera
Campylobacter jejune
2. Viral: Rotavirus
3. Protozoa =>E.histolytica,G. lamblia.

Causes Of Diarrhea And Diarrhea Treatment


*Age most diarrheal episodes occur during the first 2 years of life. Incidence is highest in the age group 6-11 months, when weaning often occurs.
It is also common for babies less than 6 months of age fed on cow's milk or infant feeding formulas.
*Factors increasing susceptibility to diarrhea
1. Failing to breastfeed until at least 2 years of age.
2. Malnutrition.
3. Measles, it may cause immunological impairment.
4. Immunodeficiency or immunosuppression. This may be temporary, e.g. after certain viral infections or it may be prolonged, as in people with Acquired immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). When immunosuppression is severe, diarrhea can be caused by unusual pathogens and may also be prolonged.
5. Unhygienic personal and food habits.


*Season-Distinct seasonal patterns of diarrhea occur in many geographical areas. In Bangladesh usually, two peak seasons are seen, premonsoon and postmonsoon. Here diarrhea due to V. Cholera usually occurs after the monsoon; due to enter toxigenic E coil in the hot dry summer; due to shigella in the winter

Causes Of Diarrhea And Diarrhea Treatment

* Environmental factors facilitating transmission of diarrhea-

1. Moist and warm climate;
2. Overcrowded living condition;
3. Lack of safe drinking water;
4. Improper excreta disposal
5. Unhygienic home surroundings
6. Natural or man-made disasters.

The Best Invention Borehole Latrine

The Borehole latrine is the forerunner of the non-service type of latrines in this country. It was first introduced by the Rockefeller foundation during 1930's in campaigns of hookworm control. The latrine consists of the circular hole 30 to 40 cm (12-16 in.) in diameter, dug vertically into the ground to a depth of 4 to 8 m (13-26 ft.), most commonly 6 m (20 ft.). A special equipment known as the auger is required to dig a bore hole. In loose and sandy soils, the hole is lined with bamboo matting or earthen-ware rings to prevent caving in of the soil. A concrete squatting plate with a central opening and foot rests is placed over the hole. A suitable enclosure is put up to provide privacy. For a family of 5 or 6 people, a bore hole of the above description serves well for over a year. The borehole is essentially a family type of installation and is not recommended as a public convenience because of its small capacity. When the contest of the bore hole reach within 50 cm (20 in) of the ground level, the squatting plate is removed and the hole is closed with earth. A new hole is dug and similarly used. The night soil undergoes purification by anaerobic digestion   and is eventually converted into a harmless mass.
The amount of sludge that accumulates has been estimated to amount to 2.1 to 7.3 cubic feet per. 1000 users’ days.

The Best Invention Borehole Latrine

The merits of a bore hole latrine are:

  •  There is no need for the services of a sweeper for daily removal of night soil. 
  • The pit is dark and unsuitable for fly breeding, 
  •  If located 15m (50ft) away from a source of water pollution. In spite of these merits, borehole latrines are not considered a very suitable type of latrine today. 

The reason is : 

1.      The bore hole fills up rapidly because of its small capacity,
2.      A special equipment, the auger is required for its construction which may not be readily available  

3.      In many places the subsoil water is high and the soil loose with the result it may be difficult it dig a hole deeper than 3m (10ft) . The borehole latrine is therefore not very much in use today. It has been superseded by better innovations.

Malaria Symptoms And Treatment - Epidemiology Of Malaria


 * Malaria is endemic or sporadic throughout most of the tropics and subtropics below an altitude of 1500m, excluding the Mediterranean littoral, the USA and Australia.

* Following WHO-sponsored campaigns of prevention and more effective treatment, the incidence of malaria was greatly reduced in 1950-'60 but since 1970 there has been a resurgence.

* Now about 40% of the world's population is at risk of malaria. Each year there are 300-500 million clinical cases of malaria, 90% of them in Africa, of whom 1% die, mainly children.
Malaria in Bangladesh :

Malaria is hyper-endemic in the Chittagong Hill tracts area, in the border areas of Dinajpur, Kustia Mymensingh and Sylhet.
In 1970, the total malaria cases detected in Bangladesh were 8,173 from 5.9 million blood slides examined. The cases were increased steadily reaching a peak of 48,804 cases in 1976.
Further Bangladesh has been facing an upsurge of malaria incidence particularly from late 1990. In 1994 the total cases of malaria were 1,66,585.

The possible causes of the upsurge of malaria may be:
* Cross-border migration of labor force
* Steady rise of cases on both sides of the border
* Lack of adequate diagnostic and treatment facilities at the peripheral level
* Inadequate vector control measures
* Little or no epidemic forecasting system
* Change in topographic features particularly in the epidemic-prone areas.

Ecological triad:
1. Agent: There are 4 species of malaria parasites which in fact man--
* Plasmodium vivax: Benign tertian (BT) malaria
* P.ovale: Oval malaria
* P. malaria: Quartan malaria.
* P.falciparum: Malignant tertian (MT) malaria, pernicious malaria.

2.  HOST
* Age --all ages are affected.
* Sex -- male>Female
* Immunity --Has no natural immunity. Infants borne of immune mothers are generally protected during the first 3-5 months by maternal antibodies.

Rainfall is the main factor, others are temperature (20--30C, humidity (63% or more) and air movement.

* Man made malaria -- burrow pits, garden pools, irrigation channels and engineering projects have led to the breeding of mosquitoes and an increase in malaria. Low socioeconomic condition favors in occurring malaria in high rate.

Incubation period: 
This is the number of days covering the time between infection and the first appearance of clinical signs (fever) incubation period of x, P. oval and P. falciparum malaria: 9 -14 days 9average 12 days)
Incubation period of P .malaria: 18 days -6 weeks.

* Preparation period: 

This is the number of days between infection and the first appearance of parasites in the blood.

What Is Population Earth Population And Problems

Population problems:

Bangladesh has a large population with the highest density in the third word as well as high growth rate.
The population size was estimated at 123.80 million in January 1997,the natural growth rate being 1.755 per annum. In the census of 2001, the number of population was increased to about 130 million, with a net increase of 6 million; where in the long run , say by the year 2010, there will be a net increase of 42.74 million people. Such an increase of population will have several adverse implications for our socioeconomic development.

What Is Population Earth Population And Problems

1. The most serious implication of population growth will be observed in the social sector. For instance, the number of enrolled students in primary education was 17.3 million in 1995 giving 92% net enrollment rate while the teacher-student ratio was 1.90. The government is committed to ensuring universal primary education and improve teacher-students ratio to 1:50,it will require almost  double the present level of resource to provide more teachers, classroom facilities, equipment’s and institutions.

2. A dismal scenario can be observed in the health sector where both primary and specialized health care services are still inadequate. Here, a serious demand for services exists for doctors, nurses, medicine, hospital care and so on. At present, the doctor-population ratio is 1:5606, hospital bed-population ratio is 1:3231 and per capita health expenditure is Tk. 135 per annum. If the existing facilities are to be improved at a satisfactory level, then per capita health expenditure to cover the entire population will have to be doubled.

What Is Population Earth Population And Problems

3. There will be immediate on land. At present, population density is 850 persons per which will further increase to 913 persons in 2002 and 1,130 persons in 2020 per SQ. km. This is adversely affecting existing man-land ratio of 1: 18 decimal. Due to population increase, this will further deteriorate which means that the number of landless people will increase tremendously further aggravating the poverty situation.

4. The total land space of which only two-thirds is presently arable will be attenuated further. This will have an obvious adverse impact on per capita food production and food availability for the growing population.

What Is Population Earth Population And Problems

5.  Due to population growth momentum, a number of working age population (15-59 years) is projected to increase 66.6 million in 1997 to 80.2 million in 2002; 98.0 million in 2010 ; and 109.1 million in 2020 . Hence, the economy will have to create more job opportunities to employ its working age population to generate income and thereby, alleviate poverty.

6. The increase in population will adversely affect both GDP and GNP growth per capita.

What is Intranatal Care - Antenatal Screening

*Intranatal care is the care of the mother of the delivery.
# Basic principles of intranatal care :
1) Prevention of infection.
2) Prevention of dehydration and mitosis of the mother;
3) Relief of pain.
4) Prevention of trauma to the infant and mother.
5) Readiness to deal with complications such as prolonged labor, antepartum, hemorrhage, postpartum hemorrhage, convulsions, malpresentation, prolapse of the cord etc.

# objects of intranatal care:

1) To ensure that the mother receives the best available care during delivery.
2) To prevent maternal mortality and morbidity.

What is Intranatal Care - Antenatal Screening

# delivering of intranatal care:

a) Domiciliary care:
* Mothers with normal obstetric history can be advised to have their confinement in their own homes, provided the home conditions are satisfactory. Such kind of delivery may be conducted by the health worker, female or trained dais and is known as 'Domiciliary midwifery service'.

Advantage of domiciliary care:

1) The familiar surroundings of the home may tend to remove the fear associated with delivery in the hospital.
2) Cross infection-generally fewer at home than in the MCH clinic/hospital; and
3) The mother is able to keep on eye on her children and domestic affairs which may tend to ease her mental tension.

Disadvantages of domiciliary care:

1) Less medical and nursing supervision than in the clinic/hospital.
2) The mother may have less rest
3) The mother may resume herb domestic duties too soon, and
4) Diet of the mother may be neglected.

What is Intranatal Care - Antenatal Screening

B. Institutional care:

*This is recommended for all "high risk" pregnancies, and where home conditions are unsuitable.
*The length of stay in the hospital will vary with the nature of the case. In normal cases, the present practice of early discharge is not considered wrong. In selected cases, it is wiser to allow the mother a few days rest in the hospital.

Keeping the body's crib by the side of the mother's bed is called rooming in Merits of rooming-in.
1) Gives an opportunity for the mother to know her baby, thus a good mother-child bonding is established.
2) Mothers get a chance to practice breast feeding of babies.

3) Allays the fear in the mother's mind that the baby is not misplaced in the baby room. It also builds up her self-confidence.